Correlation between various means of form-building.

Analytical form-building means are more typical of English. However it would be wrong to underestimate the role of synthetic elements. They are very important and the following points prove it:

1. Synthetic form-building affixes are few in number but widely used. Besides some of them are productive.

2. Analytical forms comprise synthetic forms, which also proves their importance. e.g. has prepared. (have à has – synthetic form).

3. Although sound interchange is non-productive it is frequently used in the forms of irregular verbs.

4. Suppletive forms are few in number and non-productive but we find them in the paradigm of some most frequently used words. Ex.: to be, to go; good, bad.

So we should conclude that English cannot be called a purely analytical language. It is mainly analytical. The famous Danish linguist Jespersen called English an ideal language. He even developed the idea of superiority of analytical languages which reflects a more developed mentality.

There are several types of form-building in English. The main subdivision of form-building types is into synthetical and analytical. In a synthetical type a grammatical meaning is expressed within a word, in an analytical type a grammatical meaning is expressed with the help of auxiliary words (plus suffixes). The synthetical types of form-building in English include affixation (reads, shown, books, theirs etc.),sound interchange (take - took, shine - shone) and suppletivity (go - went, be -was, good - better - best}. .The only productive type in the present-day English is affixation, but the other two types are no less important, if only because they occur in words which are most frequently used. The analytical type of form-building occupies a very important place in the grammatical structure of English as the language has evolutionized from being mainly synthetical to becoming more and more analytical, and analytical tendencies in the present day English are very strong. There exist the so-called half-analytical structures and the analytical tendencies find their reflection in many spheres of the language.

16. Suppletive means of form-building in ME. There are two principal types of form-building means: synthetic and analytical. The synthetic form-building means is the expression of the relation of words in the sentence by means of a change in the word itself. There are three types of the synthetic form-building means: affixation sound interchange (morphological alteration) suppletion (suppletive means)   Affixation is the most productive means of expressing a grammatical meaning. The number of grammatical suffixes is small (8). They are:-s, -ed, -ing, -er, -est, -en, -m (him, them, whom), zero. Sound interchange is a change of a sound in the root of the word. There exist two kinds of sound interchange – vowel and consonant ones (spend – spent). This type of form-building means is non-productive. In suppletive forms there is a complete change of the phonetic shape of the root. Suppletive forms belonging to the paradigm of a certain word were borrowed from different sources. Suppletive forms are found in the paradigm of such words as TO BE, TO GO, degrees of comparison of the adjectives GOOD, BAD and in case-forms of some pronouns (I-me, she-her, we-us). Блох notes that suppletivity can be recognized in the paradigm of some modal verbs too: CAN – BE ABLE, MUST – HAVE TO, MAY – BE ALLOWED. Moreover, he says that it can be observed in pronouns (ONE – SOME), NOUNS (INFORMATION – PIECES OF INFORMATION, MAN – PEOPLE). Suppletive forms are few in number, non-productive, but very important, for they are frequently used Analytical forms were described as a combination of an auxiliary and a notional word. This definition is not precise enough and due to its ambiguity (неясность) such word-combinations as TO THE CHILD, MORE INTERESTING were treated as analytical forms. To define a true analytical form the theory of splitting (разделение) of functions should be taken into account. There must be a splitting of functions between the elements of an analytical form. The first (auxiliary) element is the bearer of a grammatical meaning only. It is completely devoid of lexical meaning, and it is the second (notional) element that is the bearer of lexical meaning. This process can be complete (perfect form) or incomplete (continuous form). The idiomaticity of an analytical form is a characteristic of a true analytical form. An analytical form functions as a grammatical form of a word. Analytical forms are much more typical of ME. Synthetic form-building means are few in number but widely used. Some grammatical suffixes are very productive.Analytical forms comprise synthetic forms. Although sound interchange is non-productive it is extensively used through the paradigm of the irregular verbs. Though suppletive forms are found through the paradigm of very few words they are very frequently used words. So we should conclude that English cannot be called a purely analytical language. It is mainly analytical.

These synthetic means of form building is non-productive but it plays an important role because it is observed in frequently used words. -Suppletion. In suppletive forms there is a complete change of the phonetic shape of the root, which happens due to the fact that certain forms belonging to the paradigm of a word were once borrowed from a different source even from a different language. We find suppletive forms in most frequently used verbs {to be, to go), adjectives (good, bad), pronouns (I-me; we-us). That is a traditional approach. Блох takes a broader look on the problem of suppletivity. He finds suppletivity in a paradigm of modal verbs (can has the suppletive form be able to; must has the suppletive form have to; may - be allowed to). He also believes that the indefinite pronoun one has its suppletive form some (in impersonal sentences). He even thinks that some abstract nouns have suppletive forms (information -pieces of information; news-pieces of news; man -people). Finally it must be noted that words in suppletive form are few in number but suppletive forms are found in the paradigm of the most frequently used words. It is a very important means of form-building in spite of the fact that it is non-productive.

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