Gateway to the Global Village
Школьный этап всероссийской олимпиады
Уважаемый участник олимпиады!
Олимпиадная работа по английскому языку состоит из трёх разделов, включающих 61 задание.
Раздел 1 (Чтение) включает 30 заданий, из которых пять – на расстановку отрывков текста в правильном порядке, 10 заданий на подстановку пропущенных предложений в тексте и 15 заданий с выбором одного правильного ответа из четырех предложенных. За каждый правильный ответ за задания 1-5 и 16-30 выставляется один балл, за каждый правильный ответ на задания 6-15 выставляется 3 балла. Максимальное количество баллов за выполнение заданий Раздела 1: 50. Рекомендуемое время на выполнение Раздела 1 – 45 минут.
Раздел 2 (Грамматика и лексика) включает 30 заданий, из которых 15 заданий с кратким ответом на словообразование и образование временных форм глаголов и 15 заданий на подстановку пропущенного слова в соответствии с логико-структурными связями текста. За каждый правильный ответ выставляется один балл. Максимальное количество баллов за выполнение заданий Раздела 2: 30. Рекомендуемое время на выполнение Раздела 2 – 45 минут.
По окончании выполнения заданий каждого из этих разделов не забывайте переносить свои ответы в Бланк ответов (Answer Sheet).
Раздел 3 (Письмо) состоит из одного задания и представляет собой небольшую письменную работу (написание письменного высказывания с элементами рассуждения). Рекомендуемое время на выполнение этого раздела работы – 45 минут. Максимальное количество баллов за выполнение заданий Раздела 3: 20. Черновые пометки делаются прямо на листе с заданиями (они не оцениваются), и только полный вариант ответа заносится в Бланк ответов (Answer Sheet).
Общее время проведения олимпиады – 135 минут. Максимальный общий балл за выполнение работы – 100.
Рекомендуется выполнять задания в том порядке, в котором они даны. Постарайтесь выполнить как можно больше заданий и набрать наибольшее количество баллов.
Школьный этап Всероссийской олимпиады
Time: 45 minutes
Put the passages of the article (A – E) in the right order (1-5).
Story of ‘The Flintstones’
A Cartoonists Bill Hanna and Joseph Barbera are the men responsible for The Flinstones. Screen Gems approached them in the late 1950s with the idea of producing an animated prime-time programme. It had never been done before, but with the fast growing popularity of their Quick Draw McGraw and Huckleberry Hound, the cartoonists gave it a go. It was a decision they were never to regret.
B Armed with the new cartoon family, Barbera set off to New York to try and sell the idea to a TV network. It was hard work and the series came close to never being made at all. After eight weeks of hard sell, still no one was interested, but an hour before Barbera was due to fly home, ABC looked at it. They took to it at once and agreed to broadcast the show. On 30 September 1960, the first episode was shown. Most of the reviews were negative, some even hostile, but the viewers absolutely loved it. Since then it has been translated into 22 languages and has been seen in nearly every country in the world.
C They decided to create a family and give it the same problems as contemporary suburban families, but with something very different about them. ’Bill and I invented six different families, however, none really pleased us,’ recalls Barbera. ‘We drew them as pilgrims, Romans, Eskimos, cowboys and everything imaginable. Then an artist came up with a sketch using leopard skins on Neanderthal-type characters,’ says Hanna. ‘That was it. That’s what we wanted them to look like.’
D Meet The Flinstones, a modern Stone Age family. From the town of Bedrock, here’s a bit about their history. Somewhere in the world, every hour of every day, The Flinstones is being broadcast. An incredible 300 million fans tune in to watch it regularly. Whether you like them or not, Fred, Wilma and their neighbours, Barney and Betty Rubble, are impossible to avoid. Recently, all 166 episodes were broadcast non-stop on television across the USA. Not bad for a cartoon which was badly received by the critics on its first run 38 years ago.
E Then they threw an average married couple into a Stone Age environment. Drawing the characters with everyday objects wasn’t funny, so they tried stone and other prehistoric materials. The result was a whole lot of clever Stone Age gadgets and endless jokes about rocks, which is why the Flintstones’ neighbours got to be called ‘Rubble’ and why they all live in ‘Bedrock’. Story lines were based on other TV series about families, and many episodes depended on audience fears, like unemployment and the dentist. Plenty of modern day characters made an appearance too, like the actor ‘Stony Curtis’ and the conductor ‘Leonard Bernstone’. Rock Hudson did not, of course, have to change his name, and one day the famous American president ‘Bill Clinstone’ was bound to make an appearance.
(Text from First Certificate Star by Luke Prodromou, Macmillan/Heinemann; task by the author)
Read the magazine article which describes an experiment with animals. Ten phrases have been removed from the article. Choose from the phrases A-K the one which fits each gap (6-15). There is an example at the beginning (0).
Chatting with Chimps
Naturalists have long known that the apes, ( 0 | _F_), communicate with one anotherthrough gestures, sounds and facial expressions. But it was long believed that ( 6 | ___). In the 1960s, however, determined researchersset themselves the task of teaching chimpanzees and other apes to talk in English.
At first the scientists tried to make the animals speak. But no chimp ever managed to acquire a vocabulary of more than for words, and ( 7 | ___) for producing the sounds of human speech. The breakthrough came when Trixie and Allen Gardner, ( 8 | ___), decided to try American Sign Language (ASL), a system of gestures used by the deaf. After four years of dedicated effort they had taught their first chimpanzee, Washoe, to use 132 signs correctly to communicate her wants and needs.
Washoe clearly ‘understood’ words - ( 9 | ___), she would bring that fruit rather than, say, a banana. But her linguistic abilities went much further. She would not only produce simple combinations like ‘give apple’ or ‘please, hurry’ to get what she wanted from her keepers, but also talked to herself in sign language ( 10 | ___): she was often observed making the sign for ‘quiet’ for her own benefit alone as she crept stealthily across the yard towards an area that she had been forbidden to enter. Washoe even learned to swear, applying the word for ‘dirty’ to anything or anyone she disliked.
The Gardners went on to assemble a small community of baby chimps ( 11 | ___) as well as with the animals. The researchers reported that the chimps grew accustomed to talking to one another in sign language. They even started ( 12 | ___), for instance, ‘water bird’ for a swan. Apart from sign language, apes have been taught by other scientists to communicate using plastic tokens on a board, ( 13 | ___). Some researchers have noticed that the apes prefer to use symbols in a particular order, ( 14 | ___). For example, they will request something to drink by signing ‘more drink’ rather than ‘drink more’.
Yet other scientists still doubt whether the apes are using language in truly human sense. They point out that ( 15 | ___), and they spend most of their time exactly copying the series of signs made by their teachers, But the Gardners at least are in no doubt that their chimps really can talk with their hands.
A a husband-and-wife team of scientists at the University of Nevada
B that were constantly in presence of adults who used sign language among themselves
C and see this as evidence of primitive grammar
D when she was asked in sign language to fetch an apple
E that apes rarely put together more than two words in a sentence
F our nearest relatives in the animal kingdom
G only human beings could use words and sentences
H when she thought no one was watching
I inventing their own words by combining signs they knew
J having learnt that each token represented an object, action, colour or concept
K these were spoken with great difficulty as their vocal tracts are not well adapted
(Text from Reader’s Digest Did you know? (First Certificate Gold coursebook by Richard Acklam, Longman); task by the author)
You are going to read a magazine article about ethnic communities living in London. Answer the questions 16-30 by choosing from the communities (A-F). The communities may be chosen more than once. When more than one answer is required, they may be given in any order. There is an example at the beginning (0).
is associated with a specific means of arrival? (0). _______C_____
is not from the main part of the country of origin? 16. ______________
can regularly be seen in national dress? 17. ______________
does not live in a particular named district? 18. ______________
is enthusiastic about a particular sport? 19. ____ 20. ____ arrived at four separate times? 21. ______________
is associated with an annual social event? 22. ____ 23. ____
is more temporary than others? 24. ______________
is compared in size with another community? 25. ______________
can easily find things to read in their own language? 26. ______________
is said to be increasing in size? 27. ______________
lives in an increasingly expensive area? 28. ______________
has to try harder than others to maintain its original culture? 29. ______________
lives and works in a different area? 30. ______________
Gateway to the Global Village
Britain ’s capital is a treasure trove of foreign culture. People from all over the world live in London and the result is a thrilling multiculturalism: cafes, restaurants, shops and markets offer you the world on your doorstep. Come and meet people who are…
After the Irish, the Indian community is the second largest in London. The first Indians arrived in 1597 and more came after the founding of the East India trading company in the seventeenth century. Numbers increased when India became independent in 1947 but the community really took off in the 1950s and 1960s with employment opportunities around Heathrow airport. Although ‘Little Indias’ exist all over London, the most striking is the district of Southall in West London, not far from the airport. Here Indian foodstalls and video shops are everywhere, spicy aromas fill the air, and women stroll around wearing the typical colourful sari, just as in India. In McDonald’s the piped music is refreshingly Indian.
The supermarkets and shops in Lambeth and Stockwell Roads are the most obvious indication that you are in ‘Little Portugal’, but there is much more to this community than that. Over 20,000 Portuguese live south of the River Thames. The majority have come from the island of Madeira rather than from the mainland of Portugal. This close-knit community is mad about football and folk-dancing and holds its own carnival every February. It’s a community that is determined to hold on to its traditions and it’s a great place to experience Madeiran culture.
When the ship Emperor Windrush docked in 1948 with its 500 immigrants, it marked the start of the main period of Caribbean immigration, stimulated by British economic expansion. Since then, over 300,000 have established vibrant communities all around London. The greatest Caribbean celebration is the Notting Hill carnival, now Europe’s largest street party, which takes place every August. However, Brixton, in South London, is the hub of the community. As you step out of the Underground station into Brixton Market, your senses are stimulated by the noise, the bright colours and the rhythmic sound of Caribbean music. This is one of the best places to shop for food in London. However, the area has become a very popular place to live and prices are rising.
Finchley and Hendon in North London are the principle centres for Japanese people. The national affection for golf has had a noticeable effect on these areas – if you drive up Finchley Road, you have an almost unlimited choice of golf shops and courses. Other than this, there is little evidence of a community. Although there are restaurants and foodstores here, most socialising takes place at home. It isn’t as permanent as other communities, either – many Japanese arrive on five-year contracts in the banking and technology sectors and then return home afterwards. The best restaurants tend to be in central London, where most of the community works.
The Polish community isn’t as distinct as some other ethnic communities in London. Andrzej Morawicz, President of a well-known Polish club, puts this down to integration. ‘When you are a large enough community, it’s easy to hold on to your culture and customs. In comparison, the Polish community has become part of British society to a large extent, so keeping up traditions isn’t easy.’ All the same, you can hear Polish conversations along King Street in Hammersmith, West London, where newsagents’ windows are full of advertisements in Polish for the benefit of the local community. There are also plenty of clubs, restaurants and food shops that help to keep traditions alive. There is even a daily Polish-language newspaper, Dziennik Polski.
The first Lebanese who came to London were almost all business people, but over the last twenty years people from all walks of life have settled here. Joycelyn, a history graduate from Lebanon, now runs a delicatessen and is very enthusiastic about London life. ‘The community is getting stronger and bigger,’ she explains. ‘When I first came here, I never heard anyone speak Arabic. Now I can hear my language everywhere.’ Although there isn’t a geographically defined ‘Little Lebanon’ there are many shops and restaurants in West London and along the Edgware Road.
(From Fast Track to FCE coursebook by Alan Stanton and Mary Stephens, Longman)
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